Software Development Life Cycle – Introduction Model Stages and Advantages

What is the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

SDLC or Software Development Life Cycle is essentially the process or phases of a model or methodology, which software engineers and developers follow in developing an application or software. In simpler words, it is a process consisting of a series of planned activities for planning, creating, testing, deploying and maintenance of software.

SDLC is often referred as software development process, as it consists of all tasks, which needs to be followed while developing an application or software. SDLC is followed within IT development companies to develop, alter, replace or enhance the performance of the software. ISO/IEC 12207 is an international standard for SDLC, which ensures high quality of the newly developed software. It also helps IT development companies in improving the overall quality of their software development services.

What are the major SDLC Models, followed in the IT Industry?

There are various SDLS models, which are currently followed in the IT Industry. Often referred as ‘Software Development Process Models’, all the process models follow unique software development steps, ensuring 100% success of the development projects.

The major software development life cycle models are-

  • Waterfall Model
  • Iterative Model
  • Spiral Model
  • V-Model
  • Big Bang Model

Other related models are Rapid Application Development (RAD), Prototype and Agile Models.

The advantages of choosing an appropriate Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)-

  • Increased Product Quality
  • Increased Development Speed
  • Improved Client Relations
  • Improved Tracking & Control
  • Decreased Project Risks
  • Decreased Project Management Overhead

What are the different stages of SDLC?

Stage 1:

Planning and Requirement Analysis

This is the most important stage in the SDLC. This stage needs input from the customers, sales team, industry experts, a marketing team and their survey reports. After which, senior business managers and developers of a software development company plan the project approach and the development model.

Stage 2:

Designing

After the analysis of requirements and finalizing the Design Document Specification (DDS), the product architecture is designed by an expert team. This architecture has to stand upon various parameters such as budget, time, product robustness, risk assessment and design modularity, after which it is considered for the development.

Stage 3:

Development

The actual development of the software or application starts at this stage. The team of engineers and developers follow the coding guidelines set by the organization and use different tools for code generation. The programming code is generated as per the details documented in the DDS. The developers use different high level programming languages as per the requirement.

Stage 4:

Testing

In this stage, the final product goes through a pre-defined road of testing, where defects or bugs in the product are reported and then fixed by the developers. This stage ensures that the final product meets the highest quality standards, which are accepted worldwide.

Stage 5:

Deployment

At this stage, the final product is deployed at the client base. At times, the software is integrated with the client’s current application and database. All the deployment and integration works are done under the guidance of expert software engineers and developers.

Stage 6:

Maintenance & Support

Most of the reputed IT development companies also provide complete maintenance and technical support, post deployment of the final product at client base.

All You Need To Know About FOB

FOB is an important term related to the shipping of goods. It stands for “freight on board” or “free on board” indicating the designation when the ownership or liability of goods gets transferred from the seller to the buyer. The term FOB is often confusing for many in the shipping industry. However, it is crucial that both sellers and buyers must understand the proper FOB definition and scope so that they do not end up in losing dollars. This term determines the responsibility of the party for bearing the charges of freight and also decides the point of time when the shipment is passed over from the sellers to the buyers.

For instance, in case of international shipping, FOB indicates that the consignor is going to bear the loading cost and the transportation cost for sending the goods to the port. The consignee bears expenses related to insurance, ocean freight, unloading and the transportation cost of the goods from the port to the actual destination. The seller in this situation passes over the risk of the goods to the buyer when there is the loading of goods at the port for shipment.

Difference Between Origin And Destination:

FOB origin indicates that the ownership of the goods is transferred as soon as in gets out of the hands of the seller. If shipping of the goods is required then it is the buyer’s responsibility and he or she has to bear the expenses. This type of transaction is often referred to the city name like FOB Boston, FOB San Francisco, etc.

FOB destination, on the other hand, indicates that ownership of goods is transferred to the buyer when the original products reach the doorstep of the buyer. Here, the seller has to arrange for the transportation of the goods for which either he pays or charges the buyer for the expenses. The seller also has to be liable in case the goods suffer any damage while en route.

FOB comes more into the picture when there are wholesale or B2B shipments of large goods.

Use Of FOB In The Shipping Documents:

There are four ways in which the FOB term is included in the documents for shipping:

  • FOB (place of origin)- Freight Collect
  • FOB (place of origin)- Freight Prepaid
  • FOB (place of destination)- Freight Collect
  • FOB (place of destination)- Freight Prepaid

It is important that the shippers understand the FOB designations well especially in case of damages to the goods. Some of the receiving docks totally deny the delivery of the damaged goods without accepting the damage notation. However, when a shipment is designated properly, it is clear that the damage risk has to be borne by the seller or the buyer. In such cases, there is no question of confusion. Moreover, the Incoterm 2010 has also amended the definition of FOB which has made the sale contracts simpler and understandable by all.

Why Does FOB Matter?

The term is particularly important for those companies who are engaged in shipping huge quantities of goods. A clear concept of the FOB term helps in understanding the liability of the party regarding the safety in the delivery of the shipment. It also helps the buyer and the seller in knowing which party owns the materials at a particular point of the shipping cycle. This information is also helpful for the accountants who can maintain instant records of the transactions on the basis of FOB. Moreover, the term is also useful in proper logistics management.

Sales Tax And FOB:

If you are falling in the nexus of any state which charges selling taxes on shipment, then FOB can be your friend. For the packages which have FOB origin marked on them, the buyer pays the freight charges directly by contracting with a shipper. Thus, the seller has no role here. The buyer does not have to bear sales taxes as he has already paid the freight charges which most of the states consider exempted.

When people find the term quite complex to understand and interpret, they often take the help of professionals who are expert in the field. This ensures that you comply with the terms without any faults and the shipments get managed quite fast. FOB incoterms is another interesting aspect which the shipping industry must pay attention to and know about in details.

Financial Planning the Right Way: Mapping Your Future With a Professional Financial Advisor

Anyone can write a financial plan, or at least it looks that way. You can consult your banker, go to a brokerage firm, or hire someone who calls himself or herself a financial planner to prepare a plan for you. Financial planning simply is not that complicated, right?

Let's consider what's included in a comprehensive financial plan. There's a section on what happens if you died today. Will estate taxes be due? Does your estate have enough liquidity? Another section outlines what happens if you become disabled or need long-term care. Have you saved enough for retirement? And how will you pay for your kids 'or grandkids' college education? What about charitable giving, income tax savings, and investment allocation?

The first place to start is selecting the right person to develop a financial plan. Find someone with a fiduciary responsibility such as a Certified Financial Planner ™.

It is important to seek out someone who will listen to your objectives and design a plan to meet your goals. Be sure the person you choose to draft your initial financial plan is familiar with how the planning you do in one area affects exit in another. For example, what you do in the area of ​​investment planning can affect your tax planning. What you do to provide for asset protection can affect your estate planning, and so forth.

A sound financial plan should also address how you are expected to have when placed in a variety of scenarios. The only certainty in life is that the unexpected will always happen. When placed in an unexpected situation, most people will tend to make major decisions based on emotion, and then try to rationalize them, underlining their long-term planning. Therefore, a solid financial plan should be flexible enough to accommodate the unexpected. This is especially true in the investment-planning arena. It is important to have a written investment policy statement to help protect your portfolio from unplanned and impulsive revisions of sound long-term policy. Especially in times of market turmoil, investors without an investment policy statement are inclined to make investment decisions that are inconsistent with prudent investment management principles – and their best interest. Your investment policy provides an agreed-upon and well-thought-out framework from which sound investment decisions will be made.

Many people believe the process ends once the plan is written. But good financial planning means regularly monitoring and adapting strategies to ensure you're meeting your goals. Remember, you're not just trying to create an end product that will not ever need to change. You're developing a map that will help guide you toward financial stability. And regular comparisons of where you planned to be in the future with where you actually end up can generate important discussions about why you ended up where you are. Are you ahead of plan because your investment portfolio did better than expected, were taxes lower than expected, or maybe you spent less than expected? The reason you end up at a particular place is important to understand because that determinates what types of adjustments might be needed for your plan A financial plan that's developed with the help of a professional financial planner could be the right map to help you reach your financial destination.

Many people can help you prepare a financial plan, but the most successful plans are crafted by professional planners which allegiance is to you, the client. Professional planners have the credentials and understanding to know how the different areas of financial planning affect one another so they can help determine what is right for you. And professional financial planners will follow up with you after the plan is in place to assist in analyzing deviations from the plan in order to make competent adjustments to steer you away from failure.

Work At Home Online And Earn Money

If you really know what you can do, work at home online jobs may be the right choice for anyone who wants to spend more time at home. These jobs not only provide you the comfort of your home, but also help you beat the recession. The gaining popularity of work from home jobs has always attracted many as you are free to make as much money as you want. There are many scams coming up on the Internet every day offering that you can make 1000$ to 5000$ per month, yes, they are all ‘scams’. I too was desperately looking for work at home online jobs, but they all seemed absolute scams. With all those scams it was hard finding one job, but now everything turned out good, now I am earning a reasonable amount of money. With the charm of the Internet there are thousands of legitimate work at home jobs for you to choose. But it is up to you to find the right one for you. There are numerous online jobs like online data entry jobs, freelance writing jobs, affiliate marketing, resume writing jobs, typing jobs, earn while you blog, web designing, virtual assistant job, review writing, programming and the list goes on.

Well, to begin your work all you need is a computer and high speed Internet connection and of course you need to have basic computer knowledge and passion for work. No matter, who you are how old you are or where you are from work at home jobs are for you literally you need to be passionate and sincere in your work. If you wish to work from home it is not that difficult to get a job for you provide you put your best efforts in finding the right choice that suits your passion and qualification.

Online Tutor Jobs

An online tutor job demands good educational qualification along with computer and Internet access. If you have good knowledge and qualification in any subjects like math, physics, chemistry or any other language you can register in any companies that offer online tutor jobs and earn a reasonable amount.

Medical Transcriptionist

Medical transcription is another work at home online jobs that provides outstanding job opportunities though it needs some special training. These jobs demand the skill of transcribing medical records for your clients. Along with good listening skills, basic computer knowledge and good typing speed are necessary.

Data Entry Jobs

Data entry jobs and freelance writing jobs are one of the common online jobs. Data entry jobs also demands very good typing speed but its more stress free compared to others. If you have adequate English vocabulary you van also try your hands on freelance writing jobs. You can either write article for on greater variety of topics as per your client demand or stick to an area of expertise.

If you happen to have knowledge about web designing, then try you your luck in the same field. It might not be that easy to win a bid as there will be many other designers like you who have placed their bids. So first of all you need to need to build a more convincing and appealing profile to compete with others.

Work at home jobs are not a myth, it is a reality that helps people earn an income provides you work hard for it like any other job.

“Money won’t create success, the freedom to make it will” – Nelson Mandela.

Yes it’s true.